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October 15, 2020 | 20:10

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Starting a technological journey involves the use of particular tools. In this article you shall be introduced to the ecosystem of technology there by getting acquainted to the best technology stacks. 

What is Tech Stack?

Fundamental and basic tool to be thought by a developer in a project of mobile or web app is a technological stack, this includes the required software, the programming language and all the components needed for the proper functioning of the project.

This mainly consists of the framework, back-end, databases and programming language for front-end. It enables the creation of a system composed of  different application functions works on a distinct infrastructure.

Mainly Tech stack is composed of either  client and server sides or just client sides. The determination of  the side depends on the project. 

clients and server side

The front-end or Client-side is defined as the visual section of the application, this is mainly the eased visual property of the application. The project must be made on an easy to access and welcoming interface for the client’s convenience.

The back-end or server-side is responsible for the data using and is mainly the invisible part for users. This  part of the program involves mainly the communication between the server and the database.

Technology stack in both cases may require plain programming language, framework, CMS or maybe a combination of all.

  • Plain language is a group of instructions for the appliance to perform an action. High level projects for instance require the use of performant, flexible and secured pure programming languages.
  • backend technologies
  • The framework is an environment composed of ready-made tools and solutions intended to accelerate the developing process. A frame work is like a templet or a semi-finished product from which you modify and construct a complete project. Different languages may contain different frameworks, there are common ones and specialized ones. Frameworks are mainly used in the development of complex and large projects with distinct functionality.
  • frontend frameworks
  • CMS enables assembling projects originating from different parts of your own project using a ready-made solution. It enables the creation of simple customized products in a short term. CMS is suitable for small projects because CMS involves read-made software requiring configuration. CMS involves many programming languages but the most used by CMS is PHP.
  • cms

    Components of a Tech Stack

    Refreshing our memories, a tech stack is composed of 2 main components:

  • Front-end stacks
  • Back-end stacks
  •  These stakes form the backbone role of the developer building the project.

    Front-end Tech Stack

    Front-end Tech Stack usually known as the client’s side of the application. Client side is defined as the visual presentation of the product mainly on the screen. The principality in this case is to produce the best experience ,smooth and easy to use interface. In a nutshell it involves the format, design and takes in account the browser presentation of the website or the apps.  

    Two principal elements are commonly used for front-end stack:

  • HTML Aka Hypertext Markup Language – Classified as a markup language used in the creation and display of electronic documents mainly web pages. HTML is the foundation in the placement of content and organisation on web pages.
  • CSS Aka Cascading style sheets – Language mainly involved in the layout and the format of the web page, involving many aspects such as the colours, layout, style, size, etc.
  • JavaScript – is a programming language used in the interaction and allowing to implement dynamic features on the webpage on its library is contains (React, jQuery, and Ember) and frameworks involving (Angular.js, Ember.js, Vue.js).
  • For instance:

    AngularJs is a Google open-source MVC framework, mainly used to develop single page apps. AngularJs is a tool used as an animating framework there by changing static HTML pages to dynamic ones. Angular Js has got amazing attributes like MVC Architecture, Pojo model, dynamic binding  and dependency in injection that correct critical  mistakes. 

    Another JavaScript library tool from Facebook is ReactJS. ReactJS is a declarative JavaScript library based on flexibility and efficiency. It is an opened source frontend engaged on the design of the app. ReactJS contains a warehouse  of amazing features and the codes are declarative making it more predictable  and comfortable to debug.

    Back-end Tech Stack                                                

    Back-end Tech Stack AKA is server-side development. It is defined by the inner workings of the app or the website that users cannot see. They are not visible but they are important tools that keep the mechanic of the app working perfectly. They are important in keeping the app or website operating.

    Top Best Back-end Tools

    It is evident each programming language has its own specificity  making it crucial in the choice of backend. Below are listed the top back-end languages which will led you to a successful achievement of your project: 

  • PHP (Hypertext Preprocessor); open-source back-end language script used to build websites and apps. It is an amazing programming language used to create apps that can be compatible to all Operating systems. It facilitates the creation of websites by a fast interaction. PHP contains a huge gallery of modules with a couple them accessible in PHP incorporate Graphics and PDF, among others. The key advantage of PHP is the simple syntax making it easy to learn, thus anyone familiar with the C language may easily get through PHP with less difficulties.
  • Python is a cutting-edge, interpreted and general purpose programming language. Python involves the utilization of third party modules thereby reducing the need of coding to very significant levels. The high level of extensibility implies few pieces of codes in other different languages like C# and C++. The wide use of the extensive libraries offer backend developers the maximum amount of productivity if compared with other programming languages. It is not only used to build basic apps but can be used in ML-based web development and even AI Tech.
  • Ruby is a scripted programming language that uses accompanied Rails. PHP is to Zend as Ruby is to Rails. The finesse of the language and sheer class makes it attractive to back-end developers making it a must have into your stack. An amazing feature is by prioritizing conventions rather than the configuration. This helps the back-end developers in saving time in the configuration of files to start the development of processes. Ruby comes pre-configured thus helping in saving enormous time implying a speeding up of the development process.
  • Java is a general-purpose, platform-independent and object-oriented programing language. Resulting to its convenience, power security highlights and power, Java has become the most used language among developers. For instance Java contains stack framework, it follows LIFO (Last in First Out) causing the information to recover efficiency. Java is an amazing programming language that has the capacity to support multithreading making it reliable.
  • C# / Visual Basic – is a java based programming language which is independent and possesses similar threads with C++. It doesn’t support multiple inheritance like Java. It gets an advantage on the design of the .NET Microsoft has constructed a pair of flexible back-end solutions called Asp.Net and written cores in C# or Visual Basic.
  • JavaScript is an amazing programming language that has made its way as one of the most essential programming languages, with its Node.js being used as a back-end solution has proven its efficiency. JavaScript is so flexible it can be used as front-end and back-end. In addition it is proven to be efficient in handling very high user bases.
  • Main elements included in backend stack 

  • Database – The best stack must be chosen to store and manage the data base.here are some notable stacks that may be used for the management of your database MySQL, MongoDB or PostgreSQL.
  • Frameworks – This tool provides support to the application based on programming languages some notable Stacks in this lane are Django, Laravel and Ruby on rails are the most popular frameworks.
  • Servers – To have a proper working app or website , it is unavoidable to use the best backend server for the management of your client requests .Here are some notable stacks used for this purpose i.e Nginx, Internet Information Servers (IIS) powered by Microsoft and Apache.
  • Programming Languages – The salt to the soup is mainly the programming language used thus creating some logics for the app and the website.The main function of this stack is to bind the website or the app to the database. Some notable examples are PHP, python or JavaScript.
  • Top Tech Stack Models

    To ease your task thereby helping you to save your time and money some stack models have proven their success. These models are obviously regularly updated and improved with time.

    MEAN

    Bringing amazing numerous positive feedbacks to web developers. It is composed of single language JavaScript and the list below of open source and free technologies. 

    MEAN

    MEAN involves a practical approach in the speed and efficiency of the apps. Data transmissions done by a unique language JSON (JavaScript Object Notations) and involves free library access too. Scalable software products may be built using this stack .It is efficient  for all types of interactive apps  and websites.

    LAMP

    LAMP is an industry standard stack model characterised by its best performance, flexibility and cost efficiency.

    LAMP

    These pilled stacks are open source and free. This stack has the particularity to run in any operating system. The components in this stack model can be interchanged and modified depending on the need of the developing team i.e se WAMP for Microsoft operating system and MMP for MacOs.

    MERN

    MERN has similar attributes as MEAN. The principal difference is the interchanging of Angular.js with React. The difference is that you change Angular.js with React.

    The main advantage using MERN is that react has the ability of using codes on the server and the browsers simultaneously. It contains a powerful library and full stack development tools (front-end and back-end). React is also known for its performance and flexibility in interactive user interface. Additionally, React is known for its flexibility and performance in developing interactive user interfaces.

    MEVN

    Another variable of MEAN is MEVN where we use Vue.js instead of  Angular.js as a framework. Over the years of experience Vue.js has been a successful popular tool incorporating the best of Angular and React. Vue.js is easier to learn than others thus in its programming style and provides amazing performance for web apps. Vue.js is easy to learn, delivers a clear programming style, and provides superb performance for web applications.

    Ruby on Rails

    Ruby On Rails is a programming zone using Ruby, which is a dynamic programming language. Using Ruby on Rails can be an entirely simplifying development process. On the server-side web app development is written using Ruby programming language. In its default mode it allows the use of database management and web pages. ROR is well performant with CSS, JavaScript and HTML for the creation of UIs, JSON or XML for data transfer. Ruby on Rails works well with HTML, CSS, and JavaScript for creating UIs and JSON or XML for transferring data.

    What Should Your Decision Be Based On?

    Choosing the appropriate stack to develop a project may be very challenging especially with the amount of advantages some stacks have on others. While choosing the stack keep in mind the type of project influences the type of technology chosen. For instance an accounting app may need the best security, amazing data and the appropriate programming language and the frameworks that can handle tons of loads. In addition to all these points you need to keep in mind that some components of the stack may be switched. The following list the principal factors influencing our choice of a stack.

    Project size

    Projects are classified depending on the complexity, this is an important factor that influences the choice of an appropriate technology stack.

    Classification according to size may be subdivided into 3 categories 

    Small Projects

    These types of projects mainly involve single pages, digital magazines, portfolios and small web solutions that  can imply minimal tools like Webflow or Readymag. Another tool like wix may be used for these types of projects.

    Medium sized projects

    These types of projects may involve the following :online stores, enterprise and financial apps. Here we require a more complex stack with numerous layers that imply languages  as these apps possess numerous features and can be developed with frameworks. While working for a medium-sized protect you must consider cross-platform integration and the presence of multiple systems.

    Large projects 

    Involving into large projects like social networks, marketplaces and data storage sites implies some specific conditions as follows speed, scalability and service ability. Firstly, you need to identify  the features needed for the project. Then prepare a list of questions for the developing team to understand if the technology is supported fully. The development of such a project always involves complex combination tools, language and technologies involved in building the app. So as  a nutshell deciding on the choice for a complex project requires the consideration of both non-functional and functional requirements.

    Team Knowledge 

    The expertise of your developing team is a very crucial factor that influences vitally the type of stack chosen. Your team must be experienced to meet the proper deadline of the project.

    Time To Market

    Time of the market is another very important point that must be taken into consideration. Considering the use of an MVP i.e Minimum Viable Product, however if you do we recommend you sing ready-made solutions to help produce in a little amount of time and reduce the cost of production. For instance: Ruby on Rails framework, provided a variety of basic libraries thus saving a tremendous amount of time. Also we have got the involvement of third-party integrations which will help to add functionality without writing it from scratch.

    Scalability

    Planning a rapid growth may be challenging so tools chosen for your tech stack might be sufficient in scale. Scaling can be done either vertically adding other functional software for new tasks and horizontally adding physical machines to your server or database Ruby on Rail, Golang, Node.js and React. Your app may scale well on AWS, using advanced Ethernet networking technology designed to scale along with high security. 

    Security

    To every project there is a need for appropriate security to follow-up the project, thus high security must be taken into consideration. Most tech stacks may optimum in function but bear a very poor level of security. For instance while developing a medical app, security must be fully taken into consideration, Ruby On Rails, however can be a good choice as it provides DSL ie Digital Subscriber Line. DSL helps you configure a content security policy.

    Maintenance

    The stack chosen must bear an appropriate programming language easy to modify or easy in architecture. Codes as well must be able to be reusable. Apart from the architecture of the software, reusability and scalability of the app can influence the configuration of dynamic and static components.   

    Expenses

    Here the rule is quite simple ,you must understand that firstly a project is not finished when it’s released. Looking after updates and conceivably upscaling the app or project. So the expenses must not be allocated only  for the release but for the whole project. 

    Secondly, there  are numerous technologies that are open-source and free for business. This open source can reduce the expenses allocated to the project, Specific Stacks may be very expensive but worth as well.    

    Here are some memorable examples of companies and the stack chosen by their platforms  

    technology stack examples

    Suggestion What to Choose Based on a Real Case

    A prominent Ukrainian start up opened their doors on the subject www.keepintouch.ai, which is a project created and established in August 2020 by  Stanislav Stepanenko, CTO. He nailed down 4 points on why he made the choice of a precise  stack to fortify  the foundations of the start up. Here are his nailing points.

    Stanislav Stepanenko

    1.The choice of an MVP  model of project development   

    2. Bearing in mind we are a SaaS project we use open-source technologies.

    3. We paid attention to the type of technology and the size of the project thus we don’t use very complicated or rare technologies. This is because we focus on producing or implementing features in a very tight timeline, so we needed the implication of an experienced and dedicated team.    

    4. Our strategy: we work with a limited budget so we can’t hire many developers as a result we use a  CTO familiar stack. The enormous part of the iceberg that is the  coding is being done by me. We have effective marketing and promotional policies with a minimal amount of expenditure. The founders of the project are all assigned to the project, we have got a marketer, designer and a content maker.

    5. Mixing Technologies and tools  is also another ability we have. If you feel confident with micro services, go into them. Stay on alert! Many pitfalls may be present during the use of the Tech Stack. I would prefer service-oriented architecture. You can create middleware layers. They will help you to mix/switch platforms.         

    Remember, you will face issues on each step, so don’t panic. 

    More advice: 

  • Do not over architect the solution! Many startups change their idea during the development, so be ready on the technical point of view.
  • Build scalable solutions! Ask your marketing head about how ‘loaded’ your application will be (expected number of customers) and build it to survive with 10x ones. Do performance testing!
  • Some services like AWS or Azure have startup support programs. You can try to join them.
  • As a conclusion choosing the right path is the key to success so to achieve an implacable result you  must be fully informed and trained to know the advantages and disadvantages using different types of stacks. So we wish you good luck on the building and maintenance of your project.  

    Tags

    #Startups#Technologies
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